WHAT IS RETINA ?

The innermost light-sensitive membrane covering the back wall of the eyeball; it is continuous with the optic nerve.

Definitions of detached retina

Retinal detachment is a disorder of the eye in which the retina peels away from its underlying layer of support tissue. Initial detachment may be localized, but without rapid treatment the entire retina may detach, leading to vision loss and blindness. It is a medical emergency.

Definitions of macula of retina

The macula or macula lutea (from Latin macula, "spot" + lutea, "yellow") is an oval-shaped highly pigmented yellow spot near the center of the retina of the human eye. It has a diameter of around 5 mm and is often histologically defined as having two or more layers of ganglion cells

Ans. Diabetes causes decreased blood supply to the retina which in turn causes new vessels to grow over the retina. But these new vessels are unstable and can rupture and cause bleeding in the posterior part of gauss loss in vision in Diabetes.

It can also cause blood vessels to leak & cause swelling in the important central part of retina-called macula there is also an important cause of decreased vision in Diabetes.

long duration of diabetes.
Uncontrolled Blood sugar levels.

Associated conditions like

Hypertension (increased BP)
Nephropathy (Kidney failure)
Hyperlipidemia
Pregnancy

Regular Blood sugar check-up and regular lineament for diabetic form a physician / Dialectologist.

Examination of eye from an ophthalmologist and thereafter follow up for examination of eyes frequently as per advice of the ophthalmologist.

Treatment of associated risk factors (mentioned earlier ) from appropriate specialist doctors .

It depends upon the stage of the disease in initial sages regular Retinal examination and good BSL control should be sufficient.

In advanced cases laser may be required to prevent bleeding from the new vessels.

In more advanced stage like retinal detachment and persistent bleed in the posterior part of eye Retinal and vitreous surgery may be required.

Increasing age can sometimes affect the central part of the retinal It can be of 2 types.

Dry:- causing some substances to get deposited on the posterior part of retina & there by hampering its function and thereby decreasing the vision.

Wet ARMD:- Causing growth of new vessels under the retina which can creep in to retina and bleed causing significant loss of vision.

It is variable.
But can occur above age of 50 years.

In Dry ARMD cases some tablets consisting of vitamins and micronutrients can be prescribed which are shown to retard the progression of the disease. In wet ARMD the area of growth of new vessels can be treated with lasers.

Another new and effective modality of treatment is injection of drugs like Bevacizumab (Avastin) Ranibizumab, pegetanib sodium?(macugon) (lucentis) in the posterior part of eye.

Advantages-

Very effective in regression of the condition.
No co-lateral damage (as in laser- if very close to centre of the eye )

Disadvantages:-

Costly
May need to be repeated frequently at certain intervals to maintain ar get desired outcome.

Advantages-

Obstruction in the flow of blood in the retinal veins are called venous occlusion.

This in turn causes decreased blood vessels supply to the retina which intern causes growth of new vessels over retina. These vessels are unstable and can bleed in the posterior part of the eye causing loss of vision.

These vessels can also grow over draining channels of the eye thereby hampering fluid drainage from the eye and causing pressure inside the eye to rise –glaucoma.

Milder causes can be observed cases prone to develop complications can be treated with lasers to prevent complications.

Retina of a infant (who has born 9 months of gestation ) is not fully some vision threatening complication like Retinal detachment, bleeding in the posterior part of the eye.

Examination of the retina by a retina specialist.
Follow-up examination as per advice of the retina specialists.

In milder cases–observation & keeping watch over complications

If complications occur –lasers can be done.
In advanced cases surgery of the retina may be required.