AGE RELATED MACULAR DEGENERATION (ARMD)
What is ARMD?
Age–related macular degeneration is an eye disease that primarily affects the central portion of the retina known as the macula. The risk for developing macular degeneration increases with age and is in excess of 30% by age 75. Other risk factors include: a family history of the disease, cigarette smoking, diet, excessive sunlight exposure, hypertension and cardiovascular disease.
Diabetic retinopathy is the most common cause of blindness in individuals between 20 and 74 years old. Elevated blood glucose for prolonged periods of time causes damage to the retinal blood vessels (along with the kidneys and nerves). Such damage to the blood supply of the retina can result in abnormal bleeding, swelling of the retina, poor blood flow to the retina, and/or scarring of the retina.
Diabetic retinopathy is subdivided into two forms: non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) and a more severe form, proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR).
CENTRAL SERIOUS RETINOPATHY CSRS
What is Central Serious Retinopathy (CSR) ??
Central serous chorioretinopathy is a retinal disorder which affects the macula. It was first described in ophthalmology more than one hundred years ago. Essentially, it is an “idiopathic disorder” which means that the precise cause is unknown. Central serous is associated with an elevation (detachment) of the macula due to leakage of fluid from the circulation behind it (choroidal circulation). The leakage occurs through a defect in the tissue layer known as the retinal pigment epithelium. The retinal pigment epithelium is a single–celled layer that lies between the retina and the choroid This tissue layer normally serves to prevent fluid from the choroidal circulation from leaking under the retina. In central serous, fluid equilibrium is disturbed leading to leakage beneath the retina which elevates it to produce a macular detachment which distorts vision.
This is a disease process, which involves a layer of the eyeball called Uvea. The eyeball is made up of three layers-the outer layer being sclera and cornea (protective layer). The middle layer is uvea, which is a highly vascular layer, and maintains the nutrition of the eye.
RETINAL VEIN OCCLUSION
What is retinal Vein Occlusion?
Retinal vein occlusion is an eye condition commonly seen by retinal specialists. It is second only to diabetic retinopathy as a cause of visual loss due to retinal vascular disease.
The human eye is shaped like a ball, measuring approximately one inch across, and functions like a living camera. The front portion of the eye, consisting of the cornea (the clear cover of the eye), the lens and the iris (the colored portion of the eye),acts to focus light on the back of the eye, much like the lens and aperture system of a camera focuses light on a piece of film.
WHAT IS A MACULAR HOLE?
A macular hole is a small break in the macula, located in the center of the eye’s light-sensitive tissue called the retina. The macula provides the sharp, central vision we need for reading, driving, and seeing fine detail.
A macular hole can cause blurred and distorted central vision. Macular holes are related to aging and usually occur in people over age 60.
Retinal detachment is a disorder of the eye in which the retina peels away from its underlying layer of support tissue. Initial detachment may be localized or broad, but without rapid treatment the entire retina may detach, leading to vision loss and blindness. It is almost always classified as a medical emergency. Permanent damage may occur if the detachment is not repaired within 24–72 hours.